Rock Hill High School
Honors Biology 1

Updated Friday, February 21, 2014


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Cell History

     Organizational Hierarchy: cells tissues organsorgan systemsorganisms

      Cell History ppt.

 The wacky history of the cell theory:

   Vocabulary: cell theory, Robert Hooke, Anton van Leewenhoek, Mathias Schleiden,
                      Theodor Schwann, Rudolph Virchow, Janet Plowe, Lynn Margulis, Singer - Nicholson

Prokaryotes/ Eukaryotes


    Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes: THE TWO DOMAINS of CLASSIFICATION   

    A Comparison (Word .doc from class)
Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes (75)
Higher Level Comparison (Web)

 Bacterial shapes:                                                         Bacterial structures:      click





     Cell Structures ppt.

   Textbook: Cell Parts (77-85)
  Textbook: Differences with Plant Cells (87-90)
   Sliding scale of sizes of cells (and other small things)...
Proper Microscope Image Drawing

Helpful videos/animations:
 The Inner Life of a Cell (narrated version)
             The Inner Life of a Cell (short version w/music)
            Virtual cell animation collection
              Cell Biology: The Virtual Cell
            John Kyrk animations of cell processes (wow!)
Amazing Cells Univ. of Utah
            Virtual Cell Webpage
            Cells Alive! Very informative site - interactive
Lysosomes video
Interactive animation of cell structures         

Watch this video about cells before class.


  Two great animations of the inside of a cell (click images)...




Vocabulary: organelle, nucleus, nucleolus, chromatin, nuclear membrane, permeable, semi-permeable, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), Golgi body, ribosomes, mitochondrion, centrioles, plastids (chloroplast, leucoplast, chromoplast), vacuole, lysosome, cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, cell wall, cell membrane

Note:  Technically, organelles are lipid membrane-bound.  This would include the nucleus, mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, plastids, vacuoles, and ER.  Prokaryotes do not have these.

Other important structures are not membrane-bound: ribosomes, centrioles, cytoskeleton (microtubules, microfibers), flagellum, and cell walls.  So, some sources distinguish between these two as membrane-bound organelles and nonmembrane-bound organelles.






































Passive Transport










































Active Transport














Transport Summary




Cell Transport ppt.

   Cell Transport (97-106)


#15 (11:04) Watch this video before class.
                This is a very good introduction
                to cell transport...


  #16 (13:58)  Continuing with transport, he explains
                   Active and Passive Transport...



Molecular Workbench

 The Molecular Workbench site is designed to simulate many scientific principles.  It is an excellent way of seeing what goes on with various processes like cellular respiration, diffusion, DNA to protein, lipids and carbs, proteins and nucleic acids, harvesting light (photosynthesis), ELISA, and the tree of life.

Click on the DIFFUSION simulations, change the concentrations of oxygen or CO2 in a membrane, and predict the outcome...


     These are very good short animations to help you with passive transport:

Facilitated Diffusion Simple
Click these images to see a short narrated video of these processes. 
Then test yourself.


If the concentration of solute (in these examples, salt) is equal on both sides of a semi-permeable membrane, the water will move back and forth but maintain the same concentration on both sides.  It is said to be in equilibrium.  The cell in the beaker is said to be in an "isotonic" environment.

"ISO" means the same

In this example there are less solute (salt) molecules outside the cell than inside (10% vs. 20%). Therefore, this cell is said to be in a "hypotonic" environment ("HYPO" means less/under).

So, which way will water flow? 
In the beaker, there's 10% salt, so there's 90% water. 
In the cell, it's 20% salt and 80% water.
Water will move into the cell, because there's more water (per unit volume) outside the cell.

The cell will gain water and grow larger. In plant cells, the central vacuoles will fill and the plant becomes stiff and rigid (with high turgor pressure); the cell wall keeps the plant cell from bursting.

In animal cells, the cell may be in danger of bursting (lysing).  CONTRACTILE VACUOLES will pump water out of the cell to prevent this.


In this example there are more solute (salt) molecules outside the cell than inside (20% vs. 10%).  Therefore, this cell is said to be in a "hypertonic" environment ("HYPER" means more/over).

So, which way will water flow? 
In the beaker, there's 20% salt, so there's 80% water. 
In the cell, it's 10% salt and 90% water.
Water will move out of the cell, because there's more water
(per unit volume) inside the cell.

In plant cells, the central vacuole loses water and the cells shrink, causing wilting.  The cell membrane can pull away from the cell wall as the cell loses water, called PLASMOLYSIS.

In animal cells, the cells also shrink.

In both cases, the cell may die.

This is why it is dangerous to drink sea water - people marooned at sea will speed up dehydration (and death) by drinking sea water.

This is also why "salting fields" was a common tactic during war - it would kill the crops in the field, thus causing food shortages.


    Active Transport (requires energy input)

Exocytosis                                                                Sodium-Potassium Pump

  These are very good short animations to help you with active transport:

Sodium-Potassium Pump Phagocytosis
Click these images to see a short narrated video of these processes.  Then test yourself.


   Self Tutorial: Passive Transport
   Self Tutorial: Active Transport  (two good sites to learn from)

  • Transport summary 1 and 2


    assive trans., semi-permeable membrane, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, diffusion, osmosis, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, facilitated diff., channel protein, active trans., Na/K pump, concentration gradient, lyse, plasmolysis, turgid, flaccid, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis

    Differentiation   Cell Differentiation ppt

    Vocabulary: stem cells (Embryonic and Adult), totipotent, pluripotent, (multipotent)



    Life Cycle









    Cell Division: Mitosis 




    The Life Cycle
    of the Cell:


    (13:34)  Tutorial video on the cell life cycle and mitosis:


          Textbook: Cell Division (154-159)

          Mitosis Power Point  

           Online Onion Root Tip Activity  Click "next" to begin...

           Mitosis animation 1
    Mitosis animation 2
    Mitosis animation 3


    cycle: G1, S, G2, M, G0, synthesis
    mitosis: prophase, chromatin, chromosome, chromatids, centromere, centrioles, spindle fibers, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis, cell plate, cleavage furrow



    Cell Division:

    "Normal cells obey strict rules.  Divide only when told.  Die rather than misbehave."
     ~ Dr. Andrew Murray, Director of the Center of Genomic Research, Harvard University

            Animation on Checkpoints

            Textbook (pg.158-159)

            Animation: How Cancer Grows
      Video: How Cancer Spreads  (HOW can this small mole on his skin kill him?  Watch.)

            Cancer research form
      Cancer research web site 

    angiogenesis Watch this video to see how cancer spreads.

    Vocabulary:: tumor, checkpoint, benign, malignant, internal and external signaling



    This illustration (and web site) depicts how ER and Golgi body work together...


    Slides we made in class of wrist cells, elodea plant, onion, and potato.

    Elodea cells after we immersed them into a
    hypertonic environment of salt water.
    Notice the plasmolysis that occurred.



    TEST YOURSELF (click image):



     Quiz Answers:

    1.  A cell plate starts to form  (Cytokinesis)

    2.  Nuclear envelope dissolves away   (Telophase)
    3.  Chromosomes form and become visible  (Prophase)
    4.  Chromosomes align at equator of cell  (Metaphase)
    5.  Spindle fibers disappear   (Telophase)
    6.  Spindle fibers emerge and cross cell   (Prophase)
    7.  Chromosomes unwind/lengthen back into chromatin (Telophase)
    8.  Sister chromatids split, move to opposite poles of cell  (Anaphase)
    9.  Nuclear membrane reforms around chromosome areas  (Telophase)
    10.  The longest lasting stage of mitosis   (Prophase)


                                        Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote




    • No organized nucleus (nucleoid region)
    • DNA is single, looped
    • No membrane-bound organelles
    • Divides by binary fission
    • Size 1-10 m
    • Always unicellular
    • Ex: Bacteria and Archaebacteria
    • Have DNA / RNA and Ribosomes
    • Surrounded by membrane
    • Same basic metabolism
    • Cytoplasm
    • flagella
    • Vesicles
    • Can have cell walls
    • Organized, membrane-bound nucleus
    • DNA is in individual strands
    • Has membrane-bound organelles
    • Divides by mitosis/meiosis
    • Size 10-100 m
    • Uni- or multicellular
    • Ex: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists


    Plant vs. Animal




    • Have plastids:




    • Central vacuole
    • Has cell wall
    • Cytokinesis develops
      cell plate
    • All other organelles (membrane-bound and nonmembrane-bound)
    • No plastids
    • Has centrioles
    • No central vacuole
    • No cell wall
    • Cytokinesis develops
      cleavage furrow